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Father's DayTravel - CookingLatin WW2

Monday, October 30

Cultural Cooking : Italy

Italy is on our shortlist of places to visit - but until then, there's nothing like an Italian dinner party with good friends, good conversation, good wine, and great food!!  Godere!  (Enjoy!)

Pumpkin Spice Biscotti
  • 1/2 Cup Pumpkin Puree
  • 2 Eggs
  • 2 Tbsp Softened Butter
  • 1 Tsp Pure Vanilla
  • 2 1/2 C All-purpose Flour
  • 1 C Sugar
  • 1 1/2 Tsp Baking Powder
  • 1 1/2 Tsp Ground Cinnamon
  • Dash of Ground Nutmeg
  • Dash of Ground Cloves
  • 1 C Toasted Coarsely Chopped Walnuts
  1. Preheat oven to 350 Degrees F.
  2. Stir together the flour, sugar, baking powder, and spices in a bowl.
  3. In a separate bowl, whisk together the pumpkin puree, butter, vanilla and eggs.
  4. Pour the pumpkin mixture into the bowl with the flour and stir until combined, then fold in the walnuts.
  5. Lightly grease a baking sheet.  Flour your hands and form a dough log about 14 inches long and 6 inches wide.
  6. Bake for about 30 minutes or until the loaf is light brown and the top is just firm to the touch.
  7. Cool the biscotti for 15 minutes, and then using a serrated knife cut into 1/2 inch slices.
  8. Reduce the oven heat to 300 degrees F.
  9. Lie the slices flat onto the baking sheet and bake an additional 7 to 8 minutes until one side is light brown.
  10. Turn the slices and bake an additional 5 minutes.  Cool.
  11. Store in an airtight container.

Cheese And Ham Stuffed Focaccia
  • 5 C All-purpose Unbleached Flour
  • 2 Tsp Instant Yeast
  • 2 - 3 Tbsp Extra Virgin Olive Oil
  • 1 Tsp Salt
  • 2 C Warm Water
  • Focaccia Filling:
    • 2 C Ricotta Cheese
    • 1 C Shredded Mozzarella
    • 1 C Grated Romano
    • 1 1/2 C Finely Diced Cooked Ham
    • 1 Tsp Coarsely Grated Black Pepper
  • Focaccia Topping:
    • 1 Tsp Dried Oregano
    • Extra Virgin Olive Oil
    • Coarse Sea Salt
  1. Measure and assemble your flour, oil, salt, yeast, and water, and add everything but the water into a large bowl and stir.
  2. Add half the water and stir, and then continue to add water until the dough begins to come together into a shaggy ball.
  3. Dump the dough mixture onto a lightly floured surface and begin to knead with the heels of your hand.
  4. Knead for about 5 minutes, or until the dough is smooth and pliant.
  5. Add a little oil (2 tablespoons) to the bottom of a large bowl and place your ball of dough inside.
  6. Roll the ball around in the oil, ensuring the sides of the bowl, and ball of dough are both lightly oiled.
  7. Cover your bowl with plastic wrap and place in a warm spot to rise.
  8. Let the dough rise until it is doubled in size, about an hour or an hour and a half depending on ambient temperature.
  9. To make a large rectangular focaccia, line a 13 X 9 inch baking sheet with sides with parchment paper, then generously brush with oil.
  10. Dump your risen dough into the pan punching it down to deflate it.
  11. Divide your dough into two equal pieces and shape into balls.
  12. Roll one ball into a rectangle about 13 x 9 inches in size and carefully place it into the prepared pan.
  13. Mix the filling ingredients in a small bowl, then spoon onto the dough, leaving a 1-inch border all around.
  14. Roll out the second ball of dough to the same size, then place it on top of the filling.
  15. Carefully stretch the edges of the bottom dough up over the top, twisting gently to seal.
  16. Brush the top of the focaccia with olive oil, then sprinkle the oregano and salt over the top.
  17. Let the focaccia rest for another 15 minutes while you preheat your oven to 425 degrees F.
  18. Bake for 20 to 25 minutes until golden brown and cool to room temperature before slicing.

Butternut Squash, Sweet Potato, & Ginger Soup 
(This is a great immune booster, too!)
  • 2 Tbsp Olive Oil
  • 1 Onion, Diced
  • 3 Cloves Garlic, Minced
  • 1 Butternut Squash, Peeled & Cubed
  • 1 Sweet Potato, Peeled & Cubed 
  • 1 Apple, Peeled, Cored, & Diced
  • 1 Inch Piece Fresh Ginger, Grated
  • 1 Tbsp Grated Fresh Turmeric
  • 1 Tsp Ground Cinnamon
  • 4 C Chicken Broth
  • Sea Salt & Pepper To Taste
  • Optional Topping:
    • Greek Yogurt
    • Toasted Pumpkin Seeds
  1. Place the oil in a heavy bottom stock pot over medium heat until lightly smoking.
  2. Add the onion, and cook until translucent, about 5 minutes.
  3. Add the garlic, squash, potato, apple, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon, and chicken broth and bring to a boil.
  4. Reduce heat to a simmer and season with salt and pepper.
  5. Cook 20 to 25 minutes or until the vegetables are tender.
  6. Either blend the soup in batches in a blender, or use a hand blender to create a smooth texture.
  7. Serve the soup in individual bowls with suggested garnish, or your garnish of choice.

Monday, October 23

Slow Cook October

October : Flavors of Fall
Learn the Crockpot Basics!!

Pumpkin Bread
  • 3/4 c canned pumpkin
  • 1/2 c light cream
  • 2 Tbsp brown sugar
  • 2 c flour
  • 2 tsp baking powder
  • 1 1/2 tsp pumpkin pie spice
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 1/4 c butter, cubed
  • 1/2 c maple syrup
  • 2 Tbsp melted butter
  • 1/2 c chopped pecans
  1. In bowl, mix pumpkin, cream, and brown sugar.
  2. In another bowl, mix flour, baking powder, spices, and salt.  Cut in butter cubes.
  3. Blend both mixtures together well, and put into bread pan inside of crockpot.  Pour maple syrup and melted butter over mixture.  Sprinkle with pecans.
  4. Cover and cook on high 2-2 1/2 hours.

Sweet Potato Bisque
  • 1 chopped onion
  • 2 sweet potatoes, diced
  • 3 c chicken stock
  • 1/2 c orange juice
  • 1 Tbsp orange zest
  • 1/2 c whipping cream
  • salt and pepper, to taste
  • chopped pecans, to top
  1. Mix onion, sweet potatoes, stock, and juice in crockpot.  Cover and cook on low 8-10 hours (or high 4-6 hours).
  2. Strain vegetable solids.  Puree vegetables until smooth.  Put back in with juices.
  3. Add zest and cream.  Cook on high for 15-20 minutes.

Apple Butter
  • 1 c brown sugar
  • 1/2 c honey
  • 1/4 c apple cider
  • 1 Tbsp cinnamon
  • 1/4 tsp cloves
  • 1/8 tsp mace
  • 10 apples, cored and diced
  1. Put all ingredients into crockpot.  Cover and cook on low 10 hours.
  2. Remove and puree solids.  Put back into crockpot.
  3. Cook, uncovered, 1-2 hours on high.

Monday, October 16

October : Opt Out

October – Opt Out

It’s hard to keep a clear mind when we’re constantly being bombarded with stuff!  This month, your challenge is to get off junk mail lists, clear the clutter in your house, and simplify.

Now, I know that for some folks, it can be stressful just to think about parting with possessions, but it can be done.  Not only is it good for your mind, but it’s good for your body, too.  A clutter-free home helps to build a calm space that has less dust, dirt, and allergens.

Clearing the Clutter
If you have things that you're on the 
fence about parting with, put them in a box and put that box up for a year.  If you haven't needed, or even thought of, those items during that time, then it's probably safe to toss them.  But they're still there for that year, if you decide that you do need them.

To not get overwhelmed, just do one room at a time.  
As you're sorting, consider these three categories :

Strategies for Refusing the Clutter :
  1. Buy less :  The less you consume, the less you pay for, and the less you have to find a place to store / maintain / clean.  In this sense, less is more.
  2. Eco-purge :  Don't just toss items....donate the things in good condition, and re-purpose or recycle the rest!  (Clothing in poor condition makes for great cleaning rags.)
  3. It's a process :  Life happens.  Stuff happens.  Recognize that you may purge now, and need to purge again later.  Letting go is a process.  Just remember that having less possessions doesn't mean you are deprived.  It benefits you and the nature around you.
  4. Watch "The Story of Stuff" below.  It will change the way you look at purchases!

Now that the Clutter’s Gone….Clean the House!
I’m not saying to turn all Martha Stewart and keep a picture of perfection.  After all, I have a hard time believing that anything magazine-worthy can house a truly active, and happy, family.  In fact, if you have children who haven’t been involved in your new healthy habits, now is the time to get them involved in your changes!!

Home Economics - Real World Style
About twice a year, spring and fall, we do a deep cleaning and de-cluttering.  It's a light week of school - mostly the three Rs with the emphasis on home economics.  Our children need to learn housekeeping skills, whether they be girls or boys.  If we take the time to teach them properly, then we can effectively work ourselves out of a job one day...and I don't know about you, but sitting back and watching them do the housework while I read a book sounds lovely.

It's a lot of up-front work, but it gives us a chance to bond over our dislike of cleaning the toilets.  It also allows me to teach them that we all have to do things in life that we don't like, because everyone relies on everyone else to do their part.  (And sometimes, that part is "math lesson.") 

We don't switch out the clothes each season because I keep everything in their closet and drawers.  All seasons.  Oklahoma's weather switches often enough that it's prudent to keep everything handy.  Plus, they have enough space.  We don't need eighty changes of clothing per person.  Enough to get through two weeks is more than enough.  The same rule applies to toys : you only need what you can play with.....except - I seriously think that the Legos are procreating in the middle of the night!

I created a worksheet for them to use as we clean the house.  It lays out exactly what needs to be done (no, they can't do it all yet) and how it should be done.  Details that you and I would take for granted are spelled out (eg, remove items from counter before wiping).  After a while, most children will take pride in helping to keep the house tidy.

If you're ready to get started de-cluttering your home, here is a beginner's worksheet from Home Storage Solutions.  It says September on it, but will work for any month - just start with Day 1.  

The Lure of Souvenirs & Mementos

As we've travelled more, and begun collecting, my husband and I have talked about the option of choosing memories, consumables, and photographs as our souvenirs.  Right now, we tend to purchase consumables - artisanal foods from factory tours, activity books from a museum that we use for school, or postcards to mail to family members.  But we often find that the experience itself, and the photos and memories of it, are more satisfying.

Mementos, on the other hand, can be a hard thing to don't want to part with them, but they're not really something that you use either.  Where do you put trophies, artwork, certificates, and such?  One suggestion is to get a revolving picture frame (replace the artwork every week or two).  Another option is to get a plastic tub for each child, label it with the child's name, and put it in the basement or attic.  You can store mementos in these bins and pull them out for reminiscing.

Thursday, October 12

Lights (Journey)

 20+ Sparkling Diwali Crafts for Families
Diwali, also known as the Festival of Lights, is one of the largest Hindu festivals, lasting for five days. Choose one or several crafts for each day of this special occasion. Spending time with the family will brighten up your day and your home when you make these sparkling Diwali crafts.
1. Rangoli Designed T-shirt - Rangoli is an art pattern used by Hindu cultures during Diwali to bring good luck to families. Traditionally, these designs are made from colored rice and flour on the floors of Hindu homes. For this project, use permanent ink and sequins on a blank t-shirt. You can create your own DIY Rangoli stencil with a Styrofoam plate. Create matching t-shirts for the whole family.
2. Indian Inspired Stamps - Browse several designs and patterns used in the Indian culture. Using a hot glue gun, create several Indian inspired designs on a piece of cardboard or a block of wood. Dip it into colorful or glittery ink to use it as a stamp. Hands can also be stamped like a faux Henna tattoo.
3. Salt Dough Diya - This blogger has created the perfect salt dough recipe for your family to use while making your tea light candle, holding Diya. Once they dry, use paint, glitter and sequins to decorate in true Diwali fashion.
4. Ceramic Hand Dish - Using air dry clay, you and the family can create stunning dishes using your hands. These mimic the mid-century Hindu design and make a cute keepsake. You can add beads and sequins before the clay dries. After it dries, paint them your favorite colors.
5. Pistachio Shell Candle Holder - These candle holders are a lovely addition to any of your table top décor for Diwali. A little card board, pistachio shells, hot glue and gold spray paint transform into a beautiful candle holder that is sure to be hit with your older kids.
6. Decorated Thali Plates - This craft is easy to accomplish and represents the tradition of perfectly balancing the six flavors of an Indian meal. To recreate your own Thali (silver platter of food), you can use silver dollar store plates and decorate them with sequin stickers and doilies.
7. Firecracker Cards - This simple craft is a great way for the kids to include family that may live too far away to celebrate in person. Take blank cards and let the kids design their own Diwali fire crackers for the outside of the card. Use glitter pens and stickers for minimal cleanup.
8. Festival Gift Box - You can find plain cardboard gift boxes at dollar stores and craft shops. Have fun gluing swirly designs or the shapes of special animals in the Indian culture. This blogger has an elephant as the centerpiece of her gift box.  Glitter, jewels and sequins are great for filling in the designs made by your child. Fill it with treats for the family.
9. Dandiya Sticks with Bling - This blog shows how your family can give an upgrade to your Dandiya sticks for ultimate festival fun and dance. Wrap the sticks in golden ribbon and the decorative appliqué of your choice. At the end of this tutorial, there is an option to add a peacock feather to the stick that is wrapped in purple, green and blue ribbon.
10. Diwali Lanterns - This simple craft is easy for smaller children but leaves you with big results. Small and large lanterns can be made, depending on the size of paper that is used. For sturdier lanterns, use a poster board.  After cutting slits into the paper, glue together so that both sides meet. Add glitter and rhinestones to the exterior. Battery operated tea light candles can be used for the inside of the lantern.
11. Shubh Labh Hangings - The bells of Shubh, meaning “goodness,” and Labh, meaning “benefit,” are meant to bring your home good luck. Typically, you would see a hanging made completely out of brass. For your project, any colors and variety of bling can be used for the hanging.
In this tutorial, the foundation of the hanger is a small square mirror. Added to the mirror are beads and dangles. This blogger also uses stickers with the names of Shubh and Labh written in Hindi.
12. Painted Votives - This craft will keep the family busy for hours. Grab a bag full of votive candles, paint and glitter pens. Paint the tops of the candles in the colors of your choice. Once they dry, you can add festive designs onto the votives with the glitter pens. This is sure to get everyone in the festive spirit.
13. Milk Bottle Elephant - The Hindi deity Ganesh appears in the form of the elephant and represents wisdom. This milk jug tutorial is a fun way to celebrate wisdom and recycling in your home. Cut the bottom out of the container and use the handle as the trunk of the elephant. You will need paint, rhinestones, googly eyes and stickers to bring your Hindi elephant to life.
14. Flower Lights - The end result of the project leaves you with a simply radiant garland of flowers that can be hung on door frames and laid across countertops. Cupcake holders are cut into flowery designs and then layered over each individual light on a strand of Christmas lights. It is that easy and looks gorgeous.
15. Mandala Stones - Lay out a table cloth and set aside some time to paint stones with the kids. You can buy stones from a craft store or go for a walk and hunt out your own. You will need a fine-tipped paint brush and paint. There is a variety of Mandala patterns that you can copy onto your stones. These can also be used in your Rangoli once they dry!
16. Colored Salt for Rangoli - Creating your very own Rangoli is always a fun aspect of the Diwali celebration. Creating the colorful supplies you need for the Rangoli is part of that fun. Use a mixture of paint and salt to create a vibrant looking substance. Glue your pattern onto a paper plate and then add the colorful salt.
17. Samosas and Chutney - Invite friends over for an authentic Indian snack. Won Ton Wrappers are an easy way to get started with your Samosas. Fill them up and ask an adult to do the frying. Use your Chutney recipe as a dip for the Samosas.
18. Henna Hands - We have all seen the beautiful and intricate Henna tattoos. These are usually used during Indian festivals and weddings. Henna ink is made from crushed dried leaves.
You may want to try your own henna tattooing on the skin. If you want a less messy version for smaller kids, cut out hand prints and let them draw their own designs on the cut outs.
19. Doodh Peda - Use the recipe given in this tutorial to create a sweet Indian treat. This cookie-like dessert can be dressed up with sprinkles for this festive time of year. Lay these out on your Thali for little hands to grab throughout the evening.
20. Paper Cup Mango Hanger - Cut the rims off paper cups and cut leafy pattern into the sides. Paint the remainder of the cup green and then decorate with sparkle glue. Line the top of the cup with gold ribbon and beads. Stagger several of these onto a golden thread for a really cute Diwali hanger.
21. CD Scratch-Off Art - Repurpose your old CDs and DVDs to create votive candle holders or to use as decoration around the house. By painting the CD, you can scratch it off into your own Rangoli design. Add rhinestones and sticky beads along your design for a very pretty outcome.
Jordan loves miniature dolls houses, beaded jewelry, and spending time with her family. Creating crafts and memories is a family tradition she is instilling in her daughters. Sharing her crafts by blogging is new to her but something she is really enjoying!!!

Wednesday, October 11

Why Walk When You Can Fly (Mary Chapin Carpenter) & a Giveaway Hop!

Two of the biggest motivators in this "house 'o boys" are Boy Scouts and airplanes.  We've devoted a lot of time (and some blog space) to incorporating them in our studies and schoolwork, with much success, and we want to share them with you.  This latest project is an elective curriculum with the Civil Air Patrol textbook.  This is a follow-up to the extensive Aviation Unit Study we created last year.

Find our Boy Scout and Badgeschooling resources at this link.

This activity book was designed to go with the 1944 Civil Air Patrol Handbook. It has been updated to include modern-day questions and activities in addition to those from the original handbook.  Each of the ten sections is broken down into manageable sub-sections, for a total of twenty-six days of school work.

Scroll down for this month's Scout-themed giveaway!

Section 1 (entire section)
  1. When was the CAP organized? (one week before Pearl Harbor)
  2. If you are 15, what is your minimum height and weight? (56” / 85*)
  3. Are you pledging to military service by joining the CAP? (no)
  4. Why should you learn about jobs other than your own? (it’s easier to cooperate if you understand others’ perspectives)

 Section 2 (2-1 – 2-6)
  1. What are the three types of soldiers? (those who fight in air, fight on ground, and who supply)
  2. Outline / define the ten sections of the army. (see book)
  3. What are three mission of the air force? (to drive off enemy aircraft, support ground & naval attacks, and carry out attacks)
  4. What category to sergeants, corporals, and staff sergeants fall into? (non-commissioned officers)
  5. Put in order of size from largest to smallest : squad, company, battalion, platoon (B,C,P,S)
  6. Why is discipline so important? (it is teamwork at its best)
  7. When would you not salute or stand at attention to an officer? (in athletic game, eating meal, on work detail, or carrying an object with both hands)
  8. What is a serious CAP offense? (trying to pass oneself as a regular army man)

 Section 2 (2-7 – 2-12)
  1. What means ‘the job that has to be done?’ (mission)
  2. Why shouldn’t you talk about military equipment or troop transfers? (don’t know who will take info and sabotage or hurt someone)
  3. What do secret / confidential / restricted mean? Define. (see book)
  4. What are three types of court martials? (summary, special, general)
  5. What is Article 104 about? (punishment without a court martial)
  6. What is the most important section (there should only be one!) of a military correspondence?  (subject)

 Section 2 (2-13 – 2-18)
  1. What does an Operations Officer do? (commanding officer’s assistant – in charge of training squadron and directing flights)
  2. What are the 10 principles of proper conduct for an officer? (see book)
  3. What is IDR? (infantry drill regulations)
  4. Practice the four stances shown for infantry drill.
  5. What is a preparatory command? (first part; it tells what is coming)
  6. What is one purpose of drill? (to move troops from one place to another)

 Section 2 (2-19 – 2-22)
  1. What is the interior guard? (body of armed soldiers who provide security)
  2. How many general orders are there for sentinels? (eleven)
  3. What is guard mounting? (ceremony for forming a new guard)
  4. What are the four parts of a review? (forming, presenting, inspecting, parading)
  5. Who is entitled to the greatest honors? (US president)

 Section 3 (3-1 – 3-3)
  1. How should you recognize aircraft? (by overall appearance / total form)
  2. What should your aircraft spotting slogan be? (eyes aloft!)
  3. How do you differentiate between land and sea planes? (wheels vs pontoons)
  4. What planes have four engines? (heavy bombers and transports)
  5. Draw the eight different wing types and label them.
  6. What is WEFT? (wing, engine, fuselage, tail)
  7. What are the four engine shapes? (radial, in-line, centered, underslung)
  8. Draw and label the three tail types.

 Section 3 (3-4 – 3-11)
  1. Why is the P-38 Lightning easy to recognize? (twin tail booms)
  2. Which airplane is exceptionally fast? (P-51 Mustang)
  3. What does the ‘B’ in B-17 and B-24 denote? (bomber)

 Section 3 (3-12 – 3-20)
  1. Which plane was the ‘answer to the fighter pilot’s prayer?’ (F-6 Hellcat)
  2. Which plane is similar to the PB24 Coronado? (B-24)
  3. What information is included in Navy aircraft designation that is not in the Army one? (where made)
  4. What does B-17 mean? (17th bomber model accepted by Army)
  5. Choose eight modern aircraft and make sillograph flash cards.

 Section 4 (4-1 – 4-8)
  1. What four types of exercises should you do? (calisthenics, combat games, swimming / running, group games)
  2. Create a calisthenics program chart and record daily. (You will begin a 90-day program in this unit.)
  3. If you have a partner, practice the two-person exercises.
  4. Why should you practice carries? (first aid and rescue work)
  5. How many sports should each CAP cadet learn? (at least two)

 Section 5 (5-1 – 5-15)
  1. Continue to work on your 90 day fitness program.
  2. Define the seven types of communication, and tell when each is ideally used. (see book)
  3. What is the easy way to think about Morse Code? (dit and dah)
  4. How do we distinguish ‘the letter 0’ from ‘zero?’ (put a line through zero)
  5. What should you first adjust if having trouble transmitting? (spring tension)
  6. How would you say ‘he is’ in Morse Code? (dit x 4, dit, dit x 2, dit x 3)
  7. What is ‘Tom’ in Morse Code? (dah, dah x 3, dah x 2)
  8. How would you translate the following code to English? “dit x 4, dit x 2, dahditdit, ditditdah,
  9. dahditdit, dit” (Hi dude!)

 Section 5 (5-16 – 5-23)
  1. Translate “base” into code. (dahditditdit, ditdah, dit x 3, dit)
  2. Translate “lake” into code. (ditdahditdit, ditdah, dahditdah, dit)
  3. What letter translates similarly to K? to L? (R and F)
  4. Write down a sentence and communicate it via code.

 Section 5 (5-24 – 5-32)
  1. Practice all ten of the numerals.
  2. How would you transmit your age in code? (answer will vary)
  3. Why do pilots carry flashlights and mirrors? (can be used to communicate)
  4. What is an advantage of radiotelegraph? (secrecy, greater distance, less interference)
  5. Why are cryptograms used in radio transmissions? (for secrecy)
  6. How do you say your name in the phonetic alphabet? (answer will vary)
  7. What are the three parts of a message? (call sign of receiver, phrase, call sign of transmitter)
  8. What does “wilco” mean? (will carry out orders)
  9. What does the control tower tell the pilot? (wind direction and velocity, runway conditions, special instructions, taxi and takeoff clearance, field altitude, correct time)

 Section 6 (6-1 – 6-5)
  1. What is lift? (the force that causes something to go off the ground)
  2. What are the leading and trailing edges? (leading = front, rounded part of wing; trailing = back, sharp part of wing)
  3. Why is speed important to lift? (when the air is moving quickly, it creates vacuum at top of wing)
  4. How much lift is required to fly straight and level? (same amount as gravity / more lift = climb / more gravity = descend)
  5. What is thrust? (force pulling airplane through air)
  6. When does and airplane need more thrust? (take off and climbing)
  7. How much thrust is needed to fly straight and level? (same amount as drag)
  8. What are the four forces of flight? (thrust, lift, drag, weight)

 Section 6 (6-6 – 6-10)
  1. What are the axes of rotation? (pitch, yaw, and roll)
  2. What helps to stabilize the axis of yaw? (rudder)
  3. What do the elevators do? (control axis of pitch)
  4. The ailerons control which axis? (roll)
  5. Using a homemade paper or balsa wood plane, demonstrate the three axes.
  6. What are trim tabs used for? (to help balance forces on controls so planes fly level without hands on controls)

 Section 6 (6-11 – 6-13)
  1. Why is metal better than wood? (stronger, and not deteriorate as fast)
  2. What is the fuselage? (body of plane; houses people and cargo)
  3. What are the three wing parts? (tip, center section, wing section)
  4. What is the braced stressed-skin wing designed for? (absorb shock for smoother flight)
  5. What must you first learn to do to fly? (taxi / take-off and land)
  6. What is it important to land straight? (landing gear can’t hold side loads)
  7. Why is the tricycle gear better? (tracks straight upon landing)

 Section 6 (6-14 – 6-18)
  1. What is the most important instrument? (magnetic compass)
  2. Where does the compass work best? (equator)
  3. What does the altimeter do? (show height above sea level)
  4. The airspeed indicator should stay between the maximum allowable speed and what? (stalling speed)
  5. If the airspeed indicator says 200mph, and you are flying at 20,000 feet, how fast are you really going? (274 mph)

 Section 6 (6-19 – 6-24)
  1. Describe the four cycles of the four-stroke engine. (see book)
  2. What should pilots check before every take-off? (ignition or magneto check)
  3. What is efficient about the radial engine? (one 360 crankshaft, less weight, and fewer moving parts)
  4. What does the tachometer indicate? (speed of engine crankshaft)
  5. Why should pilots check oil temperature gauge before taking off? (engines must be warmed up before taking off)
  6. What should be minimum preflight check? (start engine, get oil warmed up, check gauge, use brake lock to check tachometer, check both ignition systems)

Section 7 (7-1 – 7-5)
  1. What is the study of weather called? (meteorology)
  2. What are the three layers of the atmosphere? (troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere)
  3. Which region is closely related to weather? (troposphere)
  4. Which gas is the atmosphere primarily composed of? (nitrogen)
  5. Is the air usually humid in hot or cold weather? (hot)
  6. After a humid day, dew will form on grass overnight. Why? (saturation point is lowered when temperature lowers at night)
  7. What are the two temperature scales? (farenheit and celcius)
  8. How much does the temperature change for every 1,000 feet ascent? (-55 F)

 Section 7 (7-6 -7-10)
  1. Does the temperature drop consistently with ascent? (no)
  2. What is ‘standard air’ at sea level? (29.92” at 15 C)
  3. Does pressure rise or fall when you ascend? (fall)
  4. Why is it harder to breathe at higher altitudes? (less oxygen and nitrogen in air / less density because less pressure)
  5. What are the three main factors of weather? (temperature, pressure, moisture)
  6. Why are convection currents important to pilots? (turbulence)
  7. What affects wind currents? (earth rotation, storms, land and sea, uneven surfaces)
  8. If the pressure in area A is very high, and the pressure in area B is very very low, how fast or slow will the wind be? (fast)
  9. High winds would be expected when isobars are _________. (close together)
  10. If wind velocity is 20mph, describe it using the Beaufort scale. (fresh breeze – trees sway)

 Section 7 (7-11 – 7-20)
  1. How and when does fog form? (at night, air cools with contact to ground and becomes saturated)
  2. When might a pilot experience fog? (when temperature and dew point are close together)
  3. How can clouds help an aviator? (they tell changes in atmosphere)
  4. What is the difference between stratiform and cumuliform clouds? (S=lines of clouds / C=lumps and forms)
  5. Which clouds are highest? (cirrus)
  6. What do cirrus clouds indicate? (bad weather is coming)
  7. Why might stratocumulus clouds be dangerous to a pilot? (ice may accumulate on wings)
  8. Which clouds are known as ‘thunderheads?’ (cumulus)
  9. How is air stability determined? (by measuring rate temperature decrease with altitude)
  10. Does cold air rise or sink? (sink because weighs more)
  11. Which air mass is hot, dry, and unstable? (tropical continental)
  12. What happens when cold and warm fronts meet? (unstable weather)
  13. Name four items that are on a pilot’s weather report? (see book)

 Section 8 (8-1 – 8-5)
  1. What happens to oxygen at high altitudes, and how does it affect the body? (less oxygen lowers the physical and mental efficiency)
  2. What is anoxia? (thinking less clearly and reacting slowly because of less oxygen in the brain)
  3. Above 20,000 feet, what happens to the body? (lose consciousness ; death)
  4. How does air pressure change affect the stomach and ears? (expands gases = stomach pains ; ears popping from air moving in / out)
  5. What is easier to physically withstand – positive or negative G force? (positive)
  6. What organ gives you a sense of balance? (inner ear)
  7. What vitamin helps night vision, and how can you get it? (vitamin A – spinach, eggs, carrots, greens)

 Section 8 (8-6 – 8-14)
  1. Practice treating the ten types of First Aid shown.
  2. If you are 61” tall, can you hold a job? Which one(s)? (aerial gunner and bombardier)
  3. What four factors are important to a pilot? (physical fitness, good eyesight, nutrition, and teeth)
  4. What is the most common cause of airplane accidents? (pilot failure)
  5. Half of all accidents happen during ________. (landing)
  6. What are the seat belt and shoulder harness used for? (keep you in the plane ; protect in case of crash)
  7. What should you always have when you fly? (parachute)
  8. Practice landing from a parachute jump.

 Section 9 (9-1 – 9-12)
  1. How many classes of airfields are there? (four)
  2. How high can you be two miles away for a Class I field? (350 feet)
  3. Why shouldn’t airfields have steep grades? (hard to judge landings)
  4. What do runway numbers indicate? (compass bearings = # x 10)
  5. Why shouldn’t floodlight glare? (they’ll blind pilots)
  6. How are obstructions marked at night? (red lights)
  7. Where are small hangars used? (Class I and Class II airfields)
  8. Which airfield position would you like to hold? Why?
  9. Which direction should you circle for landing? (on the left)
  10. What does flashing red and green lights mean? (emergency)
  11. Why and when should you tie down aircraft? (if winds are over 20mph, to keep from blowing around)

 Section 9 (9-13 – 9-24)
  1. How do signalmen communicate in the dark? (flashlights)
  2. What three inspections are frequently done? (daily, preflight, postflight)
  3. What is done every 1,000 to 5,000 flying hours? (engine removed for overhaul)
  4. What does the crew chief use red tags for? (marking what is being repaired)
  5. What seven things are checked on the airplane daily? (engine, wings, tail, landing gear, fuselage, propeller, warm up)
  6. What should be checked while the engine is warming up? (instruments)
  7. Why shouldn’t you leave airplanes near a gas tank? (static can cause a fire)
  8. What is the critical time period after a fire? (first 60 seconds)
  9. What is the first thing you should do at a crash site? (remove all air crew members)
  10. Should you mess with a crashed plane’s electrical system? (yes – it should be electrically grounded)
  11. Why shouldn’t you move a crashed airplane, and when would it be acceptable? (a broken wire could start a fire or explosion; if necessary to save a crewman)

 Section 10 (10-1 – 10-12)
  1. What three things does the airman want in a travel route? (safe, quick, short)
  2. What is the most common aeronautical chart? (Lambert Conformal sectional chart)
  3. What is the scale of sectionals in the book? (1” = 8 miles)
  4. What two coordinates do you need to find an accurate position? (latitude and longitude)
  5. What do contour lines indicate? (altitude of land)
  6. Using the markers, make a hand drawn map of your town. Mark the landmarks.
  7. What is a restricted area? (must maintain minimum altitude over it)

 Section 10 (10-13 – 10-28)
  1. How is direction measured? (degrees from true north)
  2. What should you do when measuring a westward course? (add 180 to the direction)
  3. What causes variation? (magnetic and geographic north pole are different)
  4. How many degrees longitude does each time zone cover? (fifteen)
  5. Where is the zero meridian? (Greenwich, England)
  6. If it is Sunday, and you fly west over the date line, what day does it become? (Monday)
  7. Why do you want to reach your destination in daylight? (so you don’t have to land in the dark)
  8. What is the difference between airspeed and groundspeed? (A=speed travelling through the air; G=speed travelling on the ground)
  9. What is a course with a wind correction? (heading)
  10. Chart your course through Oklahoma with the E6-B.
We hope that your budding aviator enjoys working through this project!